The Aquifer when fracked

The Aquifer when fracked

Thursday, February 25, 2016

RIO RANCHO CITY COUNCIL Candidates Overwhelming in favor of Drilling

Our resident researcher reviewed the city council forum on YouTube. At the 1:10:10 mark the candidates are asked about Sandridge and drilling. I took notes for each speaker, but there was a battery change so several answers were not shown. Also, Rio Rancho observer placed an article endorsing one candidate from each district. Each of their endorsements were in favor of drilling with another company. 

District 1
Joshua Hernandez - in favor of drilling - endorsed by the Observer
Joanne Dudley- no comment either way
Jim Owens - seemed to be against

District 4
David Bency - for drilling - endorsed by observer
Chris Balzano - maybe - pat answer
Battery change, did not hear other speakers

Does anyone know where the other candiates in this district stand on oil drilling? 

District 6
Marlene Feure - seemed to be cautious perhaps against - endorsed by observer 
Ron Hensey - for
Ryan Parea - pro oil

A commone was made on the Facebook article that each candidate endorsed seemed to be in favor of another company drilling. The comment was deleted. Fancy that!

Go to the 1:10:10 mark for Sandridge comments

This is an email from the Oil and Gas Association  regarding drilling in Sandoval County and the Next County Commission meeting March 23, 2016 

Don't think for one minute that this is going to stop until theses well speculations are stopped at our expense.

March 23rd next p7Z Meeting on Stopping Fracking and OIl Drilling in the ABQ Basin. 

It is interesting that Manatt's company, Thrust Research developed the prospect for SandRidge.  It is also interesting that this was never disclosed to the public even though  about details on the drilling for their exploratory well from the SandRidge company.  Other than the well was to  be a vertical well county Planners never responded to questions. They could have easily talked about the plans being made by this secret team of Thrust Research and government funded scientists from Los Alamos and Sandia Labs. Interesting that we have a "secret" team of government scientists involved in a project that is willing to commit subterfuge to do their experiments in our community, deceiving the citizens of the community! This information could have been disclosed to the public if the process had actually worked.  We now need to engage in the meeting on this subject on March 23rd  UNM Lab Driven 

From: Jim Manatt <>
Sent: Wednesday, February 24, 2016 9:55 AM
Subject: Re: Sandoval County P&Z Exploratory Well Zoning Permit

Sandridge informed us of their decision to withdraw their permit request from Sandoval County yesterday afternoon.  We are, of course, disappointed and disheartened by this decision.  It is a sad day for Rio Rancho, Sandoval County, the State of New Mexico, our school children, jobs and economic development.

Fortunately, our leases have long terms and are renewable.  We will evaluate the situation, regroup, listen to input, and respond accordingly.  As positive thinkers, we will see if the Phoenix can be raised from the ashes.

I hope that you will be willing to express positive views on the future potential of the project for all of New Mexico.

On 2/22/2016 8:51 PM, Jim Manatt wrote:
Dear Fellow Earth Science Professional:

As you may have seen in the news recently, Sandridge Energy is planning to drill an exploratory test some 6-8 miles northwest of Rio Rancho, testing primarily for Mancos Shale and underlying objectives.  The well has been approved and permitted by our State's regulatory authority the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division (OCD).  A special use zoning permit has been requested of the Sandoval P&Z Commission, required on fee minerals.

My company developed the prospect.  The scientific team who worked on this project included several 35-year geologists and geophysicists, including a published, peer-reviewed PhD geological/geophysical expert on the basin.  I speak only for myself and my team. The exploratory test is an important scientific investigation to confirm the strong probability of commercial hydrocarbons in the ABQ Basin using modern drilling and completion methods.  The well has been permitted as a vertical test, to include state-of-the-art to coring, downhole imaging, petrophyscial, geochemical and log analysis of the intervals of interest, essentially an "assay" of the petroleum system for future development.  If successful, the prospect of bringing a third basin into production in New Mexico is profoundly valuable to the school children, grandchildren and people of New Mexico with a major positive impact on our State's Permanent Funds, educational and infrastructure improvement funding.  We are a resource state.

All reasonable parties expect that a responsible future development program would be carefully discussed, planned, permitted, regulated and supervised by scientific and engineering experts within the regulatory authority at OCD, and approved by all stakeholders including the county in a reasonable and responsible manner based upon the knowledge gained by the Sandridge test.  At this moment, a vocal opposition group is apparently unwilling to consider even a responsible exploratory test, much less a future development program, in spite of the fact that Sandoval County is a producing county with some 1,600 oil & gas wells in existence, about 700 in current production.  These include approximately some 70 new lateral wells drilled in the Mancos in the northwestern part of Sandoval county by Encana and WPX Energy, with excellent results.  The currently proposed vertical exploratory test will confirm the extension and existence of an economic petroleum system into this area.

A recent Op Ed I wrote for the Rio Rancho Observer is attached if you would like further information, particularly economic impact and contributions.  If you care to be heard at the Sandoval County P&Z Commission considering this project, the next meeting is at 6 PMWednesday, March 23, 2016 at the Sandoval County Administrative Building, 1500 Idalia Rd, Building D, Bernalillo, NM 87004.  I hope that if you are in agreement that a single test is a worthy scientific investigation, you will attend and speak.

Thursday, February 18, 2016

Sandridge Energy gets pass back to the P&Z Commission

Tonight the Sandoval County Commission granted Sandridge their request to postpone the hearing before the County Commission saying they needed to submit more information to the county. The Board voted 4-1 to remand the case back to the P&Z. 
The crowd was disappointed that we still have this issue hanging over their heads. Our group asked that the application be heard tonight and then voted down. The Board followed what they have done in previous cases where they remanded cases in order to give the applicant more time to provide needed information. This is third time they changed the process without asking for Sandridge to reapply. They were granted a waiver for a public information meeting, they got to amend their application in Dec and tonight they were granted more time. The P&Z will hear it March 23rd, and we go through the same process again. The Sandoval Board of County Commissioners may end up hearing this case in April. 
More to come... We will be there, Fighting the Good Fight! 
Tonight we may be on the news Channels 4&7 were there.

Tuesday, February 16, 2016

County Commission Meeting Feb 18th

All hands raised against fracking in the Rio Grande Valley
Tell the Sandoval County Commission 
NO to Fracking and Oil Drilling  

6 pm 
County Commission Chambers 
3rd Floor 1500 Idalia Road, Building D Bernalillo, NM 87004 

Sandridge Energy/AMREP Application goes before Sandoval County Commission
This is your time to voice your concerns on oil drilling and fracking in our community. We need the largest turn out ever to vote down the application.

PROTECT our property values by voicing opposition to this application 
PROTECT our children and our families health,
PROTECT our community from: unfunded mandates, catastrophic accidents, impacts to first responders, water contamination including surface and ground water, road destruction from, excessive vehicle traffic, noise, toxic fumes from hauling, flaring and methane and other VOCs releases from fracking and drilling operations.  

There are over 30 Impacts from fracking to our community that violated the zoning ordinances as it now stands. Sandridge Energy/AMREP is asking for a special use permit. Go to our  website, download the resident form, write a 300 word statement for 2 minute comments or submit to County Commission via email. 
County Contact List on website.


Make a call, write an email or request an appointment to ask the County Commissioners:

Vote down the Sandridge AMREP application,
Move to establish a moratorium on oil and gas drilling, 
Vote to establish a strong oil and gas ordinance for Sandoval County. 

We still Need People to Cover * 9 More topics to cover.
Anyone wanting to Cover these impacts at C0unty Board Meeting?
Health Effects -- #17
Public Safety -- School Bus safety, Children's Welfare.

And any number below that
does not have a persons name and an asterisk *

#1 - Adverse Effects on Farmland *
#2 - Adverse Economic Development *
#3 Jackie Coombs - Housing Costs and Scarcity
#4 - maybe Donnie or Paul Allen - Property Values *
#5 Mike Milliard - Truck Safety and Road Conditions
#6 Paula Smith - Air Pollution
#7 Jackie Coombs - Crime Associated
#8 - Difficult WorkForce Retention*
#9 - Constraint of Growth *
#10 -Paula Smith & Lesile macFadden - Earthquakes
#11- Environmental Imacts From San and Gravel Mining
#13 Janice Bilbao - GroundWater/Well Casings
#16 - Infrastructure inadequacies*
#17 - Health Effects *
#25 - Wildlife Loss of habitat *
#26 - Loss of Open Space *
#27 Elaine CImino - Noise Pollution *
#29 - Soil Erosion *
#30 - Soil Compaction*
#31 - Strain on Water Infrastructre*
#32 Benton Howell -Surface Water
#33 Elaine Cimino -Visiual blight
#34 Robert Lang -Waste Water
#35 Dave Smith - Mike Neas - Palicitas Coalition - Water Depetion

See the precedding blog, Impact of Fracking. pick a topic, read the impact summary and ordinance and master plan citation that the impact violates. Then read your statement on the issues in 250-300 words, a person only has 2 minutes to speak.  We need more speakers to read and submit their statement at the meeting for the record. 

Monday, February 15, 2016

Still need these Impacts Covered for Thursday Meeting

Here are the Impact of Fracking Item Numbers Covered for thursday Night County Meeting
See the For the Numer
We still Need People to Cover * 9 More topics to cover.
Anyone wanting to Cover these impacts at COunty Board Meeting?

Health Effects -- #17
Public Safety -- School Bus safety, Children's Welfare.

And any number below that does not have a Persons Name and naan asterisk *

#1 - Adverse Effects on Farmland *
#2 - ADverse Economic Development*
#3 Jackie Coombs- Housing Costs and Scarcity
#4 maybe Donnie or Paul Allen - Property Values
#5 Mike Milliard Truck Safety and Road Conditions
#6 Paula Smith Air Pollution
#7-Jackie Coombs Crime Associated
#8 - Difficult WorkForce Retention*
#9 - Constraint of Growth *
#10 Paula Smith & Lesile macFadden Earth Quakes
#11- Environmental Imacts From San and Gravel Mining
#13 Janice Bilbao GroundWater/Well Casings
#16 - Infrastructure inadequacies*
#17 - Health Effects *
#25 - Wildlife Loss of habitat *
#26 - Loss of Open Space *
#27 Elaine CImino Noise Pollution *  
#29 - Soil Erosion *
#30 - Soil Compaction*
#31 - Strain on Water Infrastructre*
#32 Benton Howell -Surface Water
#33 Elaine Cimino -Visiual blight
#34-Robert Lang -Waste Water
#35 Dave Smith --Mike Neas - Palicitas Coalition Water Depetion

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Comments ON Sandridge Application by Michael Neas

These comments are for the Record on the Feb 18th Board of County Commission Meeting.

Tues, February 9, 2016
SUBJECT: ZNCH‐15‐003 “Zone Map Amendment”
Written comments by Michael Neas
SandRidge requests a Special Use “Zone Map Amendment” which would allow an oil and or gas fracking well. Fracking is a petroleum production process with numerous potential public and environmental safety hazards. These hazards have the potential to negatively impact all biological life for miles around and for generations to come. One purpose of all applicable Sandoval County Ordinances and the Rio Rancho Extraterritorial Zone is the safety, and general welfare of area residents. SandRidge has not met nor even attempted to meet the requirements of the statutes, ordinances, area plans and municipal codes in place. And because of this inadequate and superficial attempt to bypass the intent of the rules in place, the County Commission shall not approve the SandRidge application.

Quality water, in adequate quantities is of great importance and concern to all residents who rely on the Albuquerque Basin. The Albuquerque Basin supplies water to more than one million people. Those people are the area residents that must be considered when granting a Special Use for oil and gas exploration and production.

Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance ­ Document #2010028894 (PDF)

A. Intent
. This zone district accommodates developments that require special consideration because of their magnitude, unusual nature, infrequent operations, questionable impact on surrounding property, or other similar reason. The boundaries of this district shall be determined on a case‐by‐case basis following amendment procedures provided in Section 19 of this Ordinance. Special conditions may be imposed by the County Board following recommendation by the Zoning Commission. The County Board may not grant a Zone Map Amendment for establishment of a Special Use District unless satisfactory provisions have been made:
1. To assure that compatibility of property uses shall be maintained in the general area;
2. To preserve the integrity and character of the area in which the Special Use District will be located, and the utility and value of property in the Special Use District and in adjacent zone districts; and
3. To assure that the Special Use District will not become detrimental to the public health, safety, or general welfare of the County.
4. To assure that the Special Use District will not conflict with the Sandoval County Comprehensive Plan or any other applicable land use plans adopted by the County.

Sandoval County has not received adequate information from SandRidge. SandRidge proposes to drill in an Active Fault Zone. SandRidge has made no attempt to convince anyone that a two mile long, 18” wide hollow concrete and steel cylinder could stand up to any seismic activity that SandRidge’s own fracking processes might set off. Rio Rancho has expressed this concern and others that SandRige has refused to address. SandRidge proposes to drill in a Water Conservation Area. On Dec. 10, 2015, they falsely stated that they had a water agreement with Rio Rancho for their exploration and production processes. In any case this water would at least in part come from the same Water Conservation Area and the waters removal from the natural water cycle of the area and the state would be and is contrary to the intent of the Rio Rancho Estates Area Plan.

SandRidge has made no attempt to address the traffic impact concerns that hundreds of vehicle trips place on the public. Is the public expected to rely on SandRidge to place the public’s health, safety and welfare first, without proper provisions in the form of writing. Many of these vehicles will be transporting toxic waste through populated areas and disposing this waste elsewhere in Sandoval County. SandRidge has a recent history of ignoring public sentiment and governmental requirements. SandRidge has made no references to any special needs Sandoval County or Rio Rancho might have in order to prepare for and or repair in the case of any possible catastrophic eventuality. These are the intended provisions of a SPECIAL USE DISTRICT that must be in the form of documentation.

Lacking an Oil and Gas Ordinance, Sandoval County must rely on the requirements of the statutes, ordinances, area plans and municipal codes in place to determine the merit of the SandRidge application. SandRidge must comply with, and supply the required information and with such certainty as to satisfy the intent of those rules.

The County also must comply with the specifications and the intent of the statutes, ordinances, area plans and municipal codes in place. To date the Planning and Zoning Commission has not prepared and submitted a recommendation to the County Commission which includes any of their own suggestions to the County Commission. Instead I am told that the County Commission will receive the same Staff Report as the P and Z Commission relied on. But the staff recommendation is not exactly equal to a P and Z Commissioners perspective and should at least be modified to reflect the reasons of a unanimous vote to accept staff’s recommendation to deny the SandRidge application.
The P and Z Commissioners themselves have valued opinions and input which are missing in the Staff Report. Staff changed their recommendation in two separate reports, possibly because of public outcry and input. The P and Z Commissioners themselves may also have important comment which is different from a staff report that was written prior to the second P and Z Commission meeting on this Zone Map Amendment. The overwhelming desire of some 500 people at two separate P and Z Commission meetings, was for a moratorium on oil and gas exploration and production within 10 miles of the Albuquerque Basin and the Santa Fe Group Aquifer in order to write and hopefully adopt a comprehensive Oil and Gas Ordinance. This is not contained in the Staff Report. The exclusion of these important recommendation causes the public to have to reiterate to the County Commisson and squander precious time.

The County Board shall not approve the Zone Map Amendment for the reasons in bold print below.
  • Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance SECTION 19. AMENDMENTS.
  • F. Zone Map Amendment Guidelines. The County Board shall not approve a Zone Map Amendment unless satisfactory provision has been made concerning the following, where applicable.
  • 1. Accessibility to property and existing or proposed structures thereon, with particular reference to automobile and pedestrian safety, traffic control, and emergency access in case of fire, flood or catastrophe;
  • 2. Off‐street parking and loading areas where required, with particular attention to the refuse and service areas;
  • 3. Water and liquid waste facilities, with reference to soil limitations, locations, and public health.
  • 4. The economic, noise, glare, or odor effects of the conditional amendment on adjoining properties; 5. The general compatibility of the proposed amendment with actual or prospective permissive zoning use of adjacent properties;
  • 6. The overall health and safety of the community; and,
  • 7. Conformance to the Sandoval County Comprehensive Plan and other applicable land use plans adopted by the County.
  • 8. The applicant has had a pre‐application public meeting where he has invited property owners, occupants, and county staff affected by the proposed amendment when the amendment involves: (a). creation of a Special Use (S‐P) District;
  • (b). creation of a Master Planned (M‐P) District; or
  • (c). change of an urban residential zone to any other classification.
  • No Pre Application Public Meeting was held.

Additional areas of concern are as follows;

  • Extraterritorial Zones are established by New Mexico Statute 3‐19‐5 (19. Planning and Platting, 3‐19‐1 through 3‐ 19‐12. and 3‐20‐5 ( 20. Subdivisions; Planning and Platting, 3‐20‐1 through 3‐20‐16.) pertaining to Municipalities.
  • A municipality having a population fewer than two hundred thousand people and greater than twenty five thousand people and located in a class A County has jurisdiction over subdivision, which includes all territory within five miles of the boundary of the municipality. Each municipality shall have planning and platting jurisdiction within its municipality and all territory within five miles of its boundary.
  • The City of Rio Rancho had a population of roughly ninety four thousand people in 2014. Rio Rancho has adopted its own Municipal Code: which includes Section 155.03 JURISDICTION. These regulations are designed to accomplish the procedures for the processing, consideration and filing of plats lying within the corporate boundaries of the city and/or within a radius of five miles from the city planning and platting jurisdiction pursuant to NMSA §§ 3‐19‐5 and 3‐20‐5. No subdivision of any land shall hereinafter be effected within the city area of jurisdiction except in accordance with the provisions of these regulations.page3image23216 page3image23376  page3image23856 page3image24016 page3image24176
  • 155.04 PURPOSE.
  • These regulations are intended to create orderly, harmonious and economically sound development of land in order to establish conditions favorable to the health, safety, convenience and general welfare of citizens of the city and its area of jurisdiction. More specifically, provisions of these regulations are designed to achieve adequate provision for light and air, public open spaces, water supply, drainage, sanitation including sewer facilities; economy in governmental expenditures and efficiency in governmental operations; safe convenient circulation of people, goods and vehicles; accurate and complete surveying and preparation and recording of plats thereof; safety and suitability of land for contemplated development; and coordination of land development in accordance with orderly physical patterns as stated in official plans, policies and ordinances and codes in furtherance of plans and policies as may have been and may be hereafter adopted by the city.
  • (A) (1) Submission.
  • (a) All proposed subdivisions, replats or plat vacations shall comply with the requirements of these regulations.

The RREAP allows for light industrial/assembly in designated areas. Oil and gas exploration and production is a heavy industry which uses exorbitant amounts of water. Water issues are a part of the health, safety and welfare of the entire Albuquerque Basin. Contamination and depletion do not know city and county boundaries. And if a producible quantity of oil or gas is found there could be far more than this single well. The entire community is much larger that the few properties surrounding a well site. As explained this potentially affected community includes possibly a million people. The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) services over 600,000 users and the ABCWUA boundary is approximately 5 miles from the proposed fracking site.
Water concerns for the Albuquerque Basin water users include potential contamination of the aquifer itself and depletion of the aquifer. This depletion is multiplied with each well drilled. Depletion and contamination could have consequences on communities other than Rio Rancho and outside of Sandoval County. The ABCWUA has not been commented regarding the water aspects and Rio Rancho’s concerns and comments have not been addressed.

The SandRidge fracking water or toxic waste would be trucked on public roads to a disposal site near La Jara, in Sandoval County. SandRidge has not specified trucking routes, permit requirements, number of truck loads, size of trucks, times of day and much more. SandRidge has also not disclosed what chemicals will be included in the fracking waste water, how it will be disposed, how deep, etc., and all of the same issues and concerns might apply to that area of Sandoval County as well.

This document is intended to address many aspects of the SandRidge application that may need to be revisited should an appeal result. 

Friday, February 5, 2016

Impacts on Fracking from the Land Use Collaborative/Yale School of Law

Impact No.

Adverse Effects on Farming and Farmland Preservation

Well pad development on active farmland, potential soil and water contamination, and significant freshwater use for hydraulic fracturing can all have negative impacts on farming practices and long-term farmland preservation.

Development; Pollution; Contamination; Water use

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec.9 (1), (2.2) ABCDE p. 11-13
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12 Plan Concept p .37
SCCP Sec 1, p. 5
Adverse Effects on Local Economic Development

Sudden development, particularly surrounding non-renewable resource extraction, can lead to rapid economic and population growth followed by equally rapid stagnation and decline. The aesthetics of rapid industrial-based growth can hinder tourism and long-term economic development.

Boomtown creation, Reduced tourism

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 9 ABCDE
p. 11-13
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12 Plan Concept p .37
SCCP Sec 1, p. 12
Adverse Effects on Local Housing Market from Increased Scarcity and Cost

With rapidly developing new industry, communities can experience a large influx of new workers. This new population needs housing and other services that may not be available. This increased demand can drive up prices across the community, making affordable housing impossible for both workers and other community members.

Rapid and large influx of out-of-state workers

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19 DEF
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12 Plan Concept p .37

Adverse Effects on Property Values

Concerns about environmental damage, whether real or perceived, along with potential mortgage and insurance restrictions around fracking sites, can drive down local housing prices.

Environmental damage; Mortgage and insurance restrictions

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec.10, SU, #14 ABC
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 1, E, p .8
SCCP Housing page 30
Adverse Effects on Road Conditions and Safety

With hydraulic fracturing comes substantial truck traffic related to well pad operations. Increased truck traffic leads to deteriorating roads and increased costs of repair and maintenance.

Truck traffic

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec.10, SU, ABC
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p .18
SCCP Sec 2, p. 10
SCCP Sec 3 ABC, p. 11
Air Pollution

Several aspects of the hydraulic fracturing operation can lead to air pollution, including truck traffic, flared methane gas, gas leaks, and evaporation from wastewater ponds.

Well pad pumps and drilling machinery; Flaring; Drilling dust; Gas escape from well; Dust from increased road traffic; Sand Dust (mining); Machine/Truck Emissions

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, SU, 2G, #7
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 8
SCCP Sec 4, No. 6
Degenerating Civic Discourse, Erosion of Community Character, and Increased Crime

Hydraulic fracturing has emerged as a very contentious issue on the local scale. The tenor of the debate can degenerate otherwise respectful community discourse. This is often made worse because the negative impacts of fracturing are often felt evenly across a community while the benefits accrue more unevenly, with those who have leased land standing to benefit the most. Likewise, some commentators have argued that the influx of new residents and workers can dramatically change the character of the town and that transient workers, in particular, can lead to increases in crime.

Heterogeneous allocation of adverse impacts, and lucrative fracking leases

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19, F, No. 6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec 7, p. 18
SCCP Sec. 3, AB, p. 11
Deterrence of or Constraint on Future Growth

Well pad construction, pipelines, and other hydraulic fracturing related infrastructure may create permanent barriers or increased costs to future plot development.

Pipelines and well sites within local government limits may slow or increase the cost of future development

(no data)

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 22 (1) Beneficial Use Determination, A
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12, p. 37
SCCP Sec. 5, Housing, B
Difficulty with Local Government Workforce Retention (and resulting rising salaries)

Increasing employment opportunities is an obviously positive result of a growing hydraulic fracturing industry in a community. However, the new opportunities can raise demand for employees, thereby raising salaries. This may make it difficult for local governments to retain and pay employees.

Increased oil and gas employment opportunities

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19, F, No. 6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12, p. 37
SCCP Sec. 5, Housing, B
Earthquakes and Ground Vibration

Some experience suggests that injection of fluids and wastewater in proximity to fault lines can increase seismic activity.

Fluid injections near or on fault-lines. Significant uncertainty around causation.

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19, F, No. 6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p. 18
SCCP Sec. 3, p. 11
Environmental Impacts from Increased Sand Mining and Processing

Sand is a major component of fracturing fluid. It is used to prop open the newly fractured shale. The high demand for sand can increase mining and processing operations in some areas. These operations have their own set of local impacts.

Need for proppant

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10 (1), Sand & Gravel Mining, p. 35-47
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p. 17-18
SCCP Sec. 6, A
Farmland Preservation

In certain communities, particularly those with high property costs, the income from farming may not be competitive with other uses of land. However, where farmers are able to increase their income as a result of natural gas leases and royalties, the economics of maintaining an active farm can become more attractive. By this calculus, hydraulic fracturing can potentially help maintain the character of a community by preserving farmland.

Private revenue from leases and royalties

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 9 (1) (2.2) CD-RRE A-C
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12, p. 37
SCCP Sec. 1 ABCDE, p. 5-9
Groundwater Pollution

There are several mechanisms by which fracking wastewater can pollute groundwater. The most common occurs when water from wastewater ponds runs off and enters the groundwater. It is also possible for fracturing fluid to leak from wells due to defects in the cement casing around the drill. Some people also claim that wastewater can enter the groundwater by moving up through the ground from disposal wells, but that is unproven and controversial.

Wastewater pond runoff. Drill leaks.

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec.19, F, No. 6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 3, p. 8-9; Sec. 8, p. 20
SCCP Sec. 3, B, p. 11
Health Concerns for Workers

The process of hydraulic fracturing posses a number of risks for workers, including exposure to chemicals, accidents at the well site, or inhalation of particulate matter such as silica dust.

Chemical spills, explosions, other accidents at the well; Silica dust exposure

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 17, D. No. 6; Sec. 19, F, No. 6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p. 17-19
SCCP Sec. 3, A, B, p. 11
SCCP Sec. 6, A, 1-6
Improved Roads

Increased heavy truck traffic associated with hydraulic fracturing causes road damage. However, many operators agree to maintain and repair roads at their own expense. This can provide local governments with improved roads, possibly to higher standards than before fracking, without cost to taxpayers.

Operator maintenance, road use agreements

Increased Burden on and Cost of Provision of Local Government Services

Rapidly growing populations create greater demand for government services and infrastructure such as city personnel, courthouses, emergency services, and municipal offices.

Rapid population growth, resulting in need for greater staff and infrastructure (ex. courthouses, offices, city personnel)

(no data)

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19, F Zone map 1-6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p. 17
SCCP Sec. 2 A, B, p. 10
SCCP Sec. 3, A, B, C, p. 11
Increased Burden on and Costs for Local Health and Emergency Services

The increased local population that can come with hydraulic fracturing along with the increase in industrial activities that could cause emergencies can escalate the burden on local health services and emergency services, driving up costs across the board.

Increase in number of people needing services, increase in activities which could cause emergencies

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 19, F, No. 1-6
Sec. 22, A
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7
SCCP Sec. 5, A, B, C
Increased Local Charitable Contributions

As new members of a community, hydraulic fracturing companies will often make an effort to integrate themselves through, among other things, local charitable 

Donations from operators

Increased Local Employment

The economic activity created by hydraulic fracturing extends from the industry itself to housing to leisure. Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to create jobs and dramatically increase local employment opportunities and wages.

Boom created by increase in economic activity and population

Increased Property Values

The broad-based economic activity created by hydraulic fracturing as well as the fracking-specific increases to undeveloped sub-surface rights can increase property values across an entire jurisdiction.

Value of undeveloped subsurface resources; Economic boom

Increased Revenue from Fee-for-Service Payments

Local governments often carry-out fee-for-service operations such as town or county clerk fees related to land records and fees for water use. Governments can therefore benefit through increased payments of this nature.

Payments for services rendered (ex. county clerk fees for providing land records, water sales)

Increased Revenue from Intergovernmental Transfers

States collect a number of fees and taxes associated with hydraulic fracturing operations (for example, severance taxes and impact fees). In many cases states have an arrangement with the host towns in which the state transfers a percentage of this income in proportion to the fracking activity within the town.

State intergovernmental transfers (severance taxes or impact fees)

Increased Tax Revenue

With new industry comes population growth, increasing property values, and increasing visitors. This will increase local tax revenue particularly through property taxes, local sales tax, and hotel/lodging taxes.

Population growth; Property tax; Sales tax; Hotel/Lodging tax

Loss of Local Habitat and Species

A number of factors can have a negative impact on local habitats and species including proliferation of well pad sites, pipelines, truck traffic, noise, light, and both air and water pollution.

Infrastructure; Transport; Pollution

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, SU, 2 G, 1-8
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12, No. 10, p. 38
SCCP Sec. 1 A, D
Loss of Recreational Space

The proliferation of well pad sites, pipelines, and other infrastructure has the potential to reduce recreational spaces such as parks, sports fields, and nature reserves.

Footprint of multiple well pads sizable

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, A, B, C, D, E
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 5, A, B
RREAP Sec. 13, p. 13
RREAP p. 41
SCCP Sec. 1 A, B, C, D, E, Sec. 2


Noise Pollution

Truck traffic, compressors, workers, and other drilling operations create noise that can be disruptive to the surrounding community.




Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, SU, A. No. 1-4; Sec. 19, F, No. 1-6; Sec. 17, D, No. 4
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 1, Intro, p. 5, No. 1
SCCP Sec. 1, B, p. 6


Revenue from Leasing and Royalties

Private land owners who lease their property for hydraulic fracturing stand to make money through payments for development rights and other royalties. Where operations take place on public land, the same is true for the government that holds the land.

Payments for development rights (to private owners or for county-owned land)


Soil Compaction

Heavy truck and equipment traffic over soil, particularly wet soil, can push air from soil, making it denser, less able to hold water, nutrients, and air, and therefore have an effect on plant growth.

Equipment and truck transport

(no data)



Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, A, No. 3; Sec. 10, D, 2 (g), No. 1-6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 8, p. 20…
SCCP Sec. 1, A, B, C, D, E


Soil Erosion and Increased Sedimentation

Development of industrial sites and associated infrastructure including pipes and roads, leads to increased soil disruption. For example, increased impervious cover can lead to heightened levels of stormwater runoff, which can cause erosion and sedimentation in water bodies.

Development; Infrastructure; -Increased impervious cover; -Soil Compaction



Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, A, No. 3; Sec. 10, D, 2 (g), No. 1-6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 8, p. 20…
SCCP Sec. 1, A, B, C, D, E
Strain on Water Infrastructure and Public Utilities


After fracturing, a portion of the fluid used to fracture the shale will flow back to the surface. Likewise, naturally occurring water from within the shale is produced and flows to the surface. Both of these contaminated wastewaters need either treatment, disposal, or both. These wastewaters are often treated by municipal wastewater treatment plants and both their volume and chemical content can strain the plant's capacity. Likewise, increased municipal wastewater from a rapidly increasing population can strain the wastewater treatment infrastructure, solid waste management, and energy provisioning.

Increased loads of wastewater from flowback (about 70% of water used in fracking comes back up the well). Often treated by the muni WWTP; Increased loads due to more people/more technologies on line with energy, garbage, waste disposal etc needs

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, SU, A, No. 1-4
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 7, p. 17
SCCP Sec. 3, A, B, p. 10
Surface Water Pollution


Leaks and spills from storage containers and storage ponds can impact surface waters such as streams and ponds. However, some communities also fear that workers will illegally dump fill material into local water bodies. Finally, if the process pollutes groundwater, that polluted groundwater could migrate to surface water bodies and cause surface water pollution.

Storage container leaks, Storage pond liner leaks; Spills, "Casing leaks; Proppants and fracking chemicals released into the subsurface which can migrate to groundwater resources; Accidents; Spills; Dumping"

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, A, No. 1-4
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 1, A, B, C, C
SCCP Sec. 6, A, No. 1-6


Visual Blight


Drilling rigs, truck traffic, construction sites, well pad industrial sites, lighting, and other components of the hydraulic fracturing process can degrade both the landscape scenery and an individual viewshed.

Development; Operation



Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, D, 2 (g) No. 1-8
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 12, Plan Concept 1-6, #6
SCCP Sec. 1, C, p. 7


Wastewater Generation


After fracturing, a portion of the fluid used to fracture the shale will flow back to the surface. Likewise, naturally occurring water from within the shale is produced and flows to the surface. Both of these contaminated wastewaters need either treatment, disposal or both.

Flowback and produced waster from wells contains high levels of known and unknown contaminants



Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, SU, A, No. 1-4; Sec. 2 (g) No. 1-6
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 8; Sec. 7, p. 17-18
SCCP Sec. 6, A, No. 1-6
Water Depletion


During the hydraulic fracturing process, significant amounts of fresh water are injected into the wells in order to fracture the shale and release gas and oil.

High levels of freshwaters required during the fracking process

Sandoval County # 10.11-18.7A Sec. 10, A, No. 3
Master Plan
RREAP Sec. 3
SCCP Sec. 1, A, B, C, D, E; Sec. 4, A, p. 12

About the Land Use Collaborative

The Land Use Collaborative provides research, training, technical assistance, support, and strategic planning services to communities. Working with trained students, the Collaboratively quickly, affordably, and effectively develops techniques to remedy nearly all types of land use problems that afflict urban, suburban, and rural communities. The Collaborative works in partnership with local land use leaders, other change agents, and state and federal agencies.

About This Resource

Governing the local impacts of hydraulic fracturing is a daunting task that demands information sharing and collaboration between local leaders. The purpose of this resource is to facilitate that information sharing by cataloguing the most common local impacts of hydraulic fracturing. This resource does not have all the answers, but it can serve as an initial point of collaboration and information sharing to help local governments make informed decisions about governing the local impacts of hydraulic fracturing.


This interactive resource was designed and implemented by Soumya Kambhampati. The material in this resource was collected and organized by Christopher Halfnight, Rebecca Gallagher, Allison Sloto, Avana Andrade, and Eleanor Killiam under the supervision of Josh Galperin, Jessica Bacher, and John Nolon.